WESTWeb uses streamlined life-cycle thinking to quantify water and wastewater systems' energy use and environmental effects, including greenhouse gases. WESTWeb was developed at the University of California at Berkeley with funding from the California Energy Commission.

Legal Notice

Need Help?

1) On the Tool tab, scroll over items underlined in red for brief guidance.

2) For a detailed WESTWeb info, see Background.

3) For frequently asked questions about WESTWeb, see FAQs.

4) For more on the life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, see LCA.

5) For a more complete LCA tool for water/wastewater, see WEST model.

6) If necessary, contact the developers. Note: customer service for this tool is not guaranteed.


Site launch:
May 31, 2011

Last update:
November 25, 2018

Update log

Principal Investigator: Arpad Horvath

Personal Website.

Tool Developer: Jennifer Stokes

Office: 410 O'Brien Hall
Email me

About Me

Jennifer Stokes is a research engineer at the University of California at Berkeley. She has been working on water and wastewater systems analysis, focusing on the water-energy-greenhouse gas nexus since 2001. Her research is focused on improving water, energy, and carbon efficiency of utility operations cost-effectively, often using life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. She has developed several decision-support tools to conduct these analyses, including WESTWeb. Her research with Professor Arpad Horvath has been funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Research Fellowship, the Renewing the Nation’s Urban Water Infrastructure (ReNUWIt) NSF Engineering Research Center, the California Energy Commission, and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. She has also advised two student intern projects funded by the California State Water Resources Control Board.

She received her undergraduate degree from the Georgia Institute of Technology and her master’s and doctoral degrees from UC Berkeley, all in in Civil and Environmental Engineering. She is affiliated with the Berkeley Water Center. She has also worked as a design engineer at an environmental engineering consulting firm in Oakland.

Research Interests

Infrastructure systems, especially water and wastewater; economic and environment assessment; water-energy-greenhouse gas nexus; water conservation and efficiency; food, energy, and water connections; life-cycle assessment; water policy issues


Stokes, J. R., T. Hendrickson, and A. Horvath. (2014). "Save Water to Save Carbon and Money: Developing Abatement Costs for Expanded Greenhouse Gas Reduction Portfolios.” Environmental Science & Technology. 48 (23): 13583-13591.

Miller-Robbie, L., B. Ulrich, D. Ramey, S. Herzog, T. Cath, J. Stokes, and C. Higgins. (2014). “Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas assessment of the co-production biosolids and biochar for land application.” Journal of Cleaner Production, published online 2014. DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.12.050

Stokes, J. R., A. Horvath, and R. Sturm. (2013). "Water Loss Control Using Pressure Management: Life-cycle Energy and Air Emission Effects." Environmental Science & Technology. 47 (19): 10771–10780.

Horvath, A. (2013). Life-cycle Energy Assessment of Alternative Water Supply Systems in California- Extensions and Refinements. California Energy Commission, PIER Energy-Related Environmental Research. CEC-500-2013-037.

Shehabi, A., J. R. Stokes, and A. Horvath. (2012). "Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system." Environmental Research Letters 7(2): 024007.

Stokes, J. and A. Horvath (2011). " Life-Cycle Assessment of Urban Water Provision: Tool and Case Study in California." Journal of Infrastructure Systems 17(1).

Stokes, J.R. and A. Horvath. (2010). "Supply Chain Effects of Wastewater Utilities." Environmental Research Letters 5(1): 014015.

Stokes J. & A. Horvath (2010). "Supply-chain environmental effects of wastewater utilities." Environmental Research Letters 5(1): 014015.

Stokes, J. R. and A. Horvath (2009). "Energy and Air Emission Effects of Water Supply." Environmental Science & Technology 43(8): 2680-2687.

Stokes, J. and A. Horvath (2006). "Life Cycle Energy Assessment of Alternative Water Supply Sources" International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, (5) 335-346.

Horvath, A. (2005). Life-cycle Energy Assessment of Alternative Water Supply Systems in California. California Energy Commission, PIER Energy-Related Environmental Research. CEC-500-2005-101.

Stokes, J. (2004). Life-cycle Assessment of Alternative Water Supply Systems in California. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Berkeley, California. May.